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    كتاب الحجاب باللغة الإنجليزية

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    كتاب الحجاب باللغة الإنجليزية

    مُساهمة  amal في الجمعة مايو 28, 2010 10:22 am

    All Praise is due to Allah, and blessings and peace be upon the Messenger of Allah, His Family, Companions and His Followers to the Day of Resurrection. One of the major issues in Islam which many Muslims have a lot of arguments about is the issue of “Hijab”. These arguments occur because of two reasons, namely: 1) the lack of complete understanding of this issue and 2) the lack of knowledge or ignorance of the proofs of the obligation of “Hijab” in the Qur’an and the Sunnah. In this booklet, I tried, with the help of Allah, to put together all these arguments among Muslims on the issue of “Hijab” in focus. First, I gave the exact definition of the word “Hijab” in its correct meaning in the Arabic Language and cited some Ayaat (Verses) from the Qur’an to show how Allah I the Almighty uses the word and thus makes its meaning more clear for the understanding of all Muslims. Second, I cited the proofs of the obligation of “Hijab” in the Qur’an and the Sunnah (using the translation of the meaning of the Noble Qur’an by Dr. Al-Hilali and Dr. Khan). Third, I listed the proofs of those who claim the legality of exposing the woman’s face and then, I stated the corresponding explicit answers based on the Qur’an and the authentic Sunnah to disprove their claim. With this presentation, I hope that Muslims all over the world will come to agreement and unity instead of argument and/or misunderstanding if not falling into disputes. After all, Islam is a divine message that calls the whole mankind to the worship of One God, Allah I the Almighty. Such worship, which includes, obedience to Allah’s Law (like the obligation to wear “Hijab” for women) must be based on the Qur’an and the authentic Sunnah of Prophet Muhammad r. Let us always be guided by the following Qur’anic verses to obey Allah I and His Messenger r, Allah said which meaning of is translated as: “ But no, by your Rubb (Lord), they can have no Faith, until they make you (O Muhammad r) judge in all disputes between them, and find in themselves no resistance against your decisions, and accept (them) with full submission.” (4:65) "It is not for a believer, man or woman, when Allah and His Messenger have decreed a matter that they should have any option in their decision. And whoever disobeys Allah and His Messenger he has indeed strayed into a plain error.” (33:36) “O you who believe! Obey Allah, and obey the Messenger (Muhammad r) and render not vain your deeds.” (47:33)


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    تعريف الحجاب

    مُساهمة  amal في الجمعة مايو 28, 2010 10:26 am

    [[center]size=24]Definition of Hijab


    It is very clear that it is mandatory for every Muslim to understand his/her faith the correct way. This means to have authentic knowledge of Islam based on the Qur’an and the Sunnah so that we can follow what Allah I and His Messenger r have commanded us to do and refrain ourselves from committing sins because of disobedience. The best way to learn and practice Islam correctly is by knowing and understanding at least the correct meaning of the Holy Qur’an and the Sunnah of Prophet Muhammad r in Arabic, if not learning the language of the Qur’an itself. We have to understand that no matter how much efforts were put to translate the meanings of the Holy Qur’an, the Sunnah of Prophet Muhammad r or the right deductions by the renown Muslim scholars of these two revealed sources of knowledge and guidance to other languages there will always be errors because of misinterpretation of the meanings of the words. It is in this context that I tried to give the real/explicit meaning of the word “Hijab” in Arabic. If we look at the meaning of the word “Hijab” in the dictionary we learn that the word means “veil”, “screen”, “cover(ing)” or “curtain” (see Al Mawrid: A Modern Arabic English Dictionary, 1992 p. 453). The meaning of the word “Hijab” becomes more clear to mean “covering” which also means “veil” as Allah I Himself uses the term. As stated in the Qur’an Allah I tells us Allah which meaning of is translated as:

    “It is not given to any human being that Allah should speak to him unless (it be) by Revelation, or from behind a veil.” ( 42:51). From the above verse, Allah I clearly mentions the word Hijab(veil) to mean covering. He makes it very clear to us that no one has spoken to Him directly face to face while seeing His face but there was always a Hijab (covering or veil) between Him and the one who spoke to Him. In fact, even Prophet Muhammad r Allah’s Prophet and Messenger to the whole mankind did not see Allah I. After Allah I honored the Prophet r to have ascended to the highest Heaven, and given him the privilege to speak to Himself, one of his Companions asked him whether he has seen Allah I. The following authentic Hadith tells us: Abi-dhar t narrated that he asked Allah’s Messenger r: “Did you see your Rubb (Sustainer)?” He r replied, which meaning of is translated as:”I saw light.” (Reported by Muslim). Also Aishah said: “ If anyone tells you that Muhammad r has seen his Rubb (Sustainer), he is a liar for Allah said, which meaning of is translated as:‘No vision can grasp Him’ (6:103).” (Reported by Al-Bukhari). Another verse, in chapter Al-Mutaffifin, verse 15, Allah I uses the word Hijab when He says, which meaning of is translated as:

    “Nay! Surely they (evil-doers) will be veiled from seeing their Rubb(Lord) that Day.” In the above verse, Allah I explains how the Kafiroon (Disbelievers) will be veiled (covered) from seeing Allah. Note that the word used here by Allah is “Mahjoboon” which comes from the verb “Hajaba” which means “prevent from seeing”. In another verse, Allah I says, which meaning of is translated as:

    “And when you (Muhammad) recite the Qur’an, We put between you and those who believe not in the Hereafter, an invisible Hijab (veil or covering).” (17:45) The word Hijab in this verse means ‘O Muhammad you will not be seen by the Kafiroon (Disbelievers) when you recite the Qur’an. Note that the the above verse (17:45) was revealed as the result of the following incident in the life of the Prophet r: Narrated Sa’ead bin Jubairt “When Chapter 111 was revealed, the wife of Abu Lahab came looking for the Prophet r while he was sitting with Abu Baker t. Abu Baker t said to the Prophet r: “I prefer you hide from her or leave as she is coming for you and she might harm you.” The Prophet r said which the meaning of is translated as: ‘There will be a screen set between her and I.” So, she did not see him…” (Reported by Abu Ya’ala). In brief, as stated in the Qur’an, the word Hijab means to veil or cover something from being seen by others, so when we say that the Muslim woman must wear Hijab, we mean that she must cover her face so as not to be seen by men who are not her mahram (those whom she is forbidden to marry permanently and her husband). It does not mean, the way some Muslims understand, that Hijab means covering the woman’s hair only because if the word Hijab means covering the hair only, then when Allah stated in the Qur’an in chapter 42 verse 51 that no one will be spoken to by Allah except behind Hijab, it would mean that they will see His Face, which is absolutely incorrect. Indeed, in this world no one has seen Allah I. Even Prophet Moses and Prophet Muhammad r whom Allah I has given the privilege to speak with did not see the Almighty. However, in the eternal world, Allah I will reward the Muslim Believers to see Him, which is then the supreme success and Allah will be pleased with them and they will be pleased with Him as He said in the Qu’ran, which meaning of is translated as:

    “For those who have done good is the best (reward, i.e. Paradise) and even more (i.e. having the honor of glancing at the countenance of Allah).” (10:26). In line with the above Qur’anic Verse are Ahadith that tell us that Allah I will reward the righteous Believers the highest honor and privilege to see His Face. This means He will unveil His Face (remove his Hijab or covering). One of these Ahadith is the following: ‘Abdullah ibn Umar narrated that Allah’s Messenger r said , which meaning of is translated as:

    "The lowest in station among the inhabitants of Paradise will be he who looks at his gardens, his wives, his bliss, his servants, and his couches stretching a thousand years’ journey, and the one who will be most honored by Allah will be he who looks at His face morning and evening.” He then recited, "Faces on that day will be bright, looking at their Rubb (Sustainer).” (Reported by At-Tirmidhi). Proofs of the Obligation of Hijab For the enlightenment of all Muslims, let us know the concrete proofs from the Qur’an and the authentic Sunnah on the obligation of Hijab for Muslim women. First let us try to understand fully what the Qur’an says about the required Hijab for women. Then, let us know the proofs from the reported Sunnah that are authentic. In other words let the words of Allah I and His Messenger r guide us as to how women in Islam must be covered. In this way, we get divine guidance that will unite our different arguments/positions on the issue of Hijab for women. Proofs from the Qur’an

    First Proof:

    Allah I said in the Qur’an, which meaning of is translated as:

    ‘And tell the believing women to lower their gaze (from looking at forbidden things) and protact their privet parts (from illegal sexaul acts) and not to show off their adornment except only that which is apparent (like both eyes for necessity to see the way, or outer palms of hands or one eye or dress like veil, gloves, head-cover, apron, etc.) and to draw their veils all over Juyubihinna (i.e. their bodies, faces, necks, and bosoms, etc) and not to reveal their adornment except to their husbands, or their fathers, or their husband’s fathers, or their sons, or their husband’s sons, or their brothers, or their brother’s sons, or their sister’s sons, their (Muslim) women (i.e. their sisters in Islam) or the (female) slaves whom their right hands posses, or old male servants who lack vigour, or small children who have no sense of feminine sex. And let them not stamp their feet so as to reveal what they hide of their adornment. And all of you beg Allah to forgive you all, O believers that you may be successful’ (24:31). In the above verse, there are three proofs of the obligation of Hijab (covering the woman’s face):
    A) Allah’s saying, which meaning of is translated as:

    “And not to show off their adornment except only that which is apparent.” Here Allah forbids the women to show off their adornment absolutely except that which is apparent, such as their outer clothes, this is the interprtation of Abdullah bin Mas’aud of this verse. Also, looking at this verse, we see that Allah stated:“Except only that which is apparent” and He did not state: “Except only that which they expose”’ because what is exposed is something you cannot hide but what appears is under your control, you can hide it if you wish to do so and you can show it off if you wish; so, woman can only show off their outer clothes because they cannot hide them even if they wish.
    B) Allah’s saying, which meaning of is translated as:

    “And to draw their veils all over Juyubihinna (i.e. their body, face, necks and bosoms).” The woman’s veil is what she puts over her head, so if she is ordered to draw her veil all over her body starting from the head ending at the toes, then her face will be the first part of her body to be covered. Also it is common sense that the beauty of the woman is her face, so how would Allah I command the woman to draw her veil over her body to prevent others from looking at her beauty and at the same time He will permit her to expose her face? This is logically senseless. ·
    C) Allah’s saying, which meaning of is translated as:

    “And let them not stamp their feet so as to reveal what they hide of their adornment.” During the pre-Islamic period, women used to wear anklets and they would stamp their feet on the ground to develop a sound with their anklets in order to attract the attention of men, so Allah I made it forbidden on Muslim women to do this act . If women are forbidden to stamp their feet on the ground to avoid infatuating men, then how about exposing their face?. So which is more attractive to men, to hear the sound of the anklets or to see the woman’s face?. Obviously the face of the woman is more attractive. Given this reality, how could it be possible to permit women to expose their faces where at the same time they are forbidden to stamp their feet?. This is a very clear proof that the woman’s face must be covered whenever strange men or non-mahram are present.

    Second Proof:

    Allah said in the Qur’an, which meaning of is translated as:

    “O prophet! Tell your wives, and your daughters, and the women of the believers to draw their cloaks (veils) all over their bodies (i.e. screen themselves completely except the eyes or one eye to see the way). That will be better that they should be known (as free respectable women) so as not to be annoyed. And Allah is Ever Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.”’(33:59). The purpose of the revelation of this verse is that the women at the Prophet’s time used to walk outside Al-Madinah when they had to answer the call of nature because they did not have restrooms in their homes and there were some wrong-doers who used to follow the women slaves when they walk outside the town to answer the call of nature and harass them. There were cases, however, when they would harass the free women thinking they were slaves, so Allah I revealed this verse to command the Prophet’s wives, daughters, and the believing women to cover themselves in order to be distinguished from the slaves women. Ibn Katheir said regarding this verse: “Allah I commanded His Messenger r to order the believing women especially His wives and daughters for their honour, to draw cloaks on themselves to be distinguished from the non-Muslim women and women slave.” The word “Jilbab” (cloak) means the cover over the veil (yashmak), according to the following interpreter of Qur’an: Ibn Mas’aud, Obidah, Qatadah, Al-Hasan Al-Basrey, Sa’eid bin Jubair, Ibrahim Anna’kahy, and Atta Al-Kahrasany. Narrated Alli bin Aby Talhah, that Ibn abbas said “ Allah I has commanded the believing women when they leave their houses for a necessity to cover their faces”. Mohammad bin Seareen (a great scholar) said, I asked Obidah As-Slmany about the meaning of Allah’s saying : (Draw their cloaks all over their bodies), so he covered his face and head while exposing his left eye. Also many Muslim scholars such as Abu Baker Arrazy (died on 370H), Emmad Ad-Deen At-Tabri (died on 516H) Imam Al-Bagawi (died on 516H), Ibn Al-Jawzy in his Tafseer (explanation) of Qur’an (died on 597H), Sheikh Al-Islam Ibn Taymiah (died on 728H) and many other scholars said the meaning of this verse is for the woman to cover her face when non-mahram men are present. With all of these proofs, we see that this verse, with no doubt, means that the Muslim woman must wear a Hijab (covering or veil) so as to cover her whole body from head to toes.

    Third Proof:

    Allah I said in the Qur’an, which meaning of is translated as:

    “And when you ask them (the Prophet’s wives) for anything you want, ask them from behind a screen. That is pure for your hearts and for their hearts.” (33:53) This verse, which was revealed in the fifth year after Hijrah, tells us that Hijab means covering all parts of the body including the face and there is no dispute between the scholars that this verse means covering the face with the rest of the body. But the dispute is about one issue whether this verse is restricted only to the wives of the Prophet r?. Or is it for all Muslim women?. Imam At-Tabri, the greatest Scholar of the Qur’an Tafseer (explanation), stated in his Book of Tafser regarding this verse “When you ask the Prophet’s wives and the believing women whom are not your wives, ask them from behind a Hijab (veil) and do not enter their homes (while they are inside the house alone), this is purer for your hearts and their hearts”. So this verse is a rule, which is not for the Prophet’s wives only but for all Muslim women. This verse (33:53) and verse (33:59) have one relation, that is, in verse 33:53 Allah I stated , which meaning of is translated as:

    “And when you ask (his wives) for anything you want, ask them from behind a screen”, the scholars agreed that this verse means that the Prophet’s wives must cover their bodies including the faces and in verse 33:59 Allah I stated, which meaning of is translated as:” O Prophet! Tell your wives and your daughters and the women of the believers to draw their cloaks(veils) all over their bodies” commanding the Prophet r to tell his wives, daughters, and the believing women to cover themselves. The point here is, how could we say that in verse 33:53 it means that the Prophet’s wives must cover their faces and in verse 33:59 it means they have to cover their bodies except their faces and the hands? If we say this, then we mean that the Qur’an means one thing in one verse and means another thing in other verse where both verses concern the same rule. To confine our interpretation of the said verses in this kind of thinking is absolutely wrong because the verses in the Qur’an confirm each other and not to contradict each other.

    Fourth Proof:

    Allah I said in the Qur’an, which meaning of is translated as: “And as for women past child bearing who do not expect wed-lock, it is no sin on them if they discard their (outer) clothing in such a way as not to show their adornment. But to refrain (i.e not to discard their outer clothing) is better for them. And Allah is All Hearer, All Knower.” (24:60). The proof in this verse, is that Allah I had negated the sin on the old women (those who had past childbearing age and have no attraction to men) if they discard their outer clothes under the condition that they do not show their adornment. It is obvious that the meaning of this verse is to discard the outer clothing but not all the clothing because she will be nude. So the elderly women can expose their faces and hands (in the presence of men who are stranger or non-mahram) if they wish but if they refrain on showing their faces it is better for them. Imam At-Tabri stated, when Allah I said, which meaning of is translated as:

    ‘It is no sin on them if they discard their outer clothing’, it means there is no sin on them if they discard their veils and their gowns (abaya). Also Imam Abu Ya’ala said “In this verse there is a proof that it is permissible for the elderly women to expose their faces and hands in the presence of men but not their hair because it is forbidden on them as it is forbidden on young women.” Sheikh Abdulaziz bin Baz said regarding this verse “Allah informs that the elderly women who are not in the interest of marriage (because of their old age) are not to be counted for misdemeanor for removing their clothes (coverings or veils) off their faces and hands as long as they are not exposing their adornments” . So it is clear to understand from this point that the elderly women who are allowed to expose their faces and hands must still observe modesty by not exposing their adornments. It must be noted that Allah I has encouraged them to observe Hijab (full covering of their bodies which includes covering of their faces) when He I says, which meaning of is translated as:

    “But to refrain (not to discard their outer clothing) is better for them.”. If Allah I has encouraged elderly women (who by nature do not appear attractive to men) not to remove their veils (covering) from their faces, so how about young and pretty women?. [/size][/center
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    الأدلة من السنة حجية

    مُساهمة  amal في الجمعة مايو 28, 2010 10:29 am

    ]size=24][center]Proofs from the Authentic Sunnah



    First Proof:

    Aishah said: “May Allah bestow His Mercy on the early emigrant women when Allah I revealed, which meaning of is translated as:

    “and to draw their veils all over Juyubihinna (i.e. their bodies, faces, necks and bosoms)’ (24:31) ¾ they tore their Muruts ( a woolen dress, or a waist -binding cloth or an apron, etc.) and covered their faces with those torn Muruts.” (Reported by Al-Bukhari). Safiya bint Shaiba narrated that “Aishahا used to say: “When the verse: `They should cover (draw their veils over) their bodies, faces, necks, and bosoms (24:31)’ was revealed, (the ladies) cut their waist sheets at the edges and covered their heads and faces with those cut pieces of cloth.” (Reported by Al-Bukhari and Abu Dawud). The above quoted authentic AHadith actually tell us how Muslim women at the time of the Prophet r obeyed Allah I and subsequently implemented the obligation of Hijab. If this verse has a different meaning to it, then the Prophet r or at least Aishah (one of the Mothers of the Believers) would have informed or corrected them of the real interpretation of Hijab.

    Second Proof:

    The Prophet r said, which meaning of is translated as: “The woman is awrah (private part, one who is forbidden to be exposed).” (Reported by At-Tirmidhi and said it is an authentic Hadith). Sheikh Hamoud At-Towaigry said “This Hadith proves that all parts of the woman’s body is ‘awrah’ (private, not to be seen or exposed) to men who are not ‘mahram’ to her, this includes her face and every part of her body”. It was reported that Imam Ahmed bin Hanbal said “ the woman’s nail is ‘awrah’ and when she leaves her home, she must not expose any part of her body, not even her shoes, because the shoes describe the feet, and I also prefer that she put a button on her sleeve at her hand, so that no part of her body will be seen by others.” Sheikh Al-Islam Ibn Taymiah said “Imam Ahmed said ‘Every part of the woman is an awrah even her finger nails.’” Sheikh Al-Islam also said “ this is also the choice (what Imam Ahmed said) of Imam Malik.”

    Third Proof:

    Narrated Ibn Umar Allah’s Messenger r said, which meaning of is translated as: “A woman who is on the state of Ihram (during Hajj or Umrah) must not wear a niqab (covering the face except the eyes) or gloves.” (Reported by Al-Bukhari, Malik, At-Tirmidhi, Abu-Dawud, and Ahmed). Abu Baker bin Al-Arabi said “ In the Hadith of Ibn Umar, when the Prophet r said ‘the woman must not wear niqab’ that is because covering the woman’s face is obligatory on every woman who is not elderly except in Hajj (and when praying where no man who is not her mahram sees her)”.

    Fourth Proof:

    'Aishah said: "Men on camels used to pass by us while we were with the Prophet r and in the state of ihram. We would cover our faces with our gowns when they passed by us, and then uncover them again.” (Reported by Abu-Dawud and Ibn Majah) 'Ata, Malik, AthThawri, Ash-Shafi'i, Ahmad, and Is’haq hold that it is permissible for women to cover their faces in the state of ihram. (Fiqh us Sunnah 5.49). From the mentioned two Hadiths it is very clear that during Hajj the woman should draw part of her ‘khimar’ (piece of clothes) over her head and face so as to avoid being seen by men who are not her mahram. Also Sheikh Al-Islam Ibn Taymiah said: “This is a proof that niqab and gloves were known to women who were not on the state of Ihram which requires covering their faces and hands”. And he also said: “There are two opinions in the school of thought of Imam Ahmed bin Hanbal regarding the woman’s face while she is on the state of Ihram: the first one it is like the man’s head (while on the state of Ihram) it must not be covered, the second, the woman’s face is like the man’s body (while on the state of Ihram, the man must cover his body but he cannot wear any clothes that fits on. In other words clothes that have been sewed to fit on the body parts like pants, shirt, etc.) where it cannot be covered with ‘niqab’ which was made to fit the body, this opinion (the second one) is the correct one because the Prophet r made the ‘niqab’ and the gloves forbidden and women used to draw on their faces with something that covers the face and hands (while on the state of Ihram) but without wearing a piece of cloth that fits on the part of the body, as it is the same for men (during Ihram) they cannot wear pants (or any piece of cloth that fits on)”. Ibn Al-Qaim said: “When the Prophet r made it forbidden on women to wear ‘niqab” and gloves in Hadith narrated by Ibn Umar, it is a proof that the woman’s face is like the man’s body (during Ihram) not the same as the man’s head (during Ihram). Therefore, it is forbidden on women to wear anything that was made to fit on the face such as ‘niqab’ whereas on the other hand it is not forbidden on her to cover her face with a ‘Jilbab’ (veil) or something alike. It has not been reported that the Prophet r had said even one letter regarding the obligation of exposing the woman’s face during Ihram”. He also said “ How can it be forbidden on the woman to cover her face and at the same time she was commanded by Allah that she must draw her ‘Jilbab’ (veil), so how will she not be known?”. Ibn Hajar reported in ‘Fatah Al-Bari’ that Ibn Al-Munther said “They (the scholars) agreed that the woman during ‘Ihram’ can wear sewn (stitched) clothes and shoes, and she covers her head and her hair except her face she must draw a piece of cloth over it to cover it from non-mahram.

    Fifth Proof:

    Narrated Ibn Umar Allah’s Messenger r said, which meaning of is translated as: “On the Day of Resurrection, Allah will not look at the one who trails his loincloth out of arrogance’ Umm Salamah asked: what should women do with the hem of their clothes? He r said: “They may lower them a hand’s span.” she said: “But their feet would still remain exposed.” He r said “Let them lower those equal to an arm’s length but not more than that.” (Reported by Abu-Dawud, At-Tirmidhi, An-Nasai, and Imam Ahmed, and At-Tirmidhi said this Hadith is authentic). Imam At-Tirmidhi said: “In this Hadith, there is a permission for women to trail their clothes so they will be covered.” And Imam Al-Baihaqi said: “This Hadith is a proof for the obligation of covering the woman’s feet.” Sheikh Mohammad bin Saleh Bin Uthaimeen said “In this Hadith, there is a proof that the women are obligated to cover their feet and this ruling is known to the companions’ wives. The foot is less attractive than the face and hands without any doubt. This Wise Faith (Islam) rejects to obligate covering what is less attractive(the feet) and permit exposing what is more attractive(the face).” Aishah said: “ The Camel Riders during Hajj) used to pass us while we were on the state of Ihram with the Messenger of Allah r and when they were parallel to us, each one of us (women) would lower down her Jilbab (veil) over her face, and when they pass us she would uncover her face” (Reported by Ahmed, Abu-Dawud, and Ibn Majah). Sheikh Mohammad bin Saleh Bin Uthaimeen said regarding this Hadith “ The saying of Aishah (when they are parallel to us, each one of us would lower down her Jilbab over her face) is a proof of the obligation of covering the woman’s face”. Also, when she said “ One of us” this means anyone of the women who were with them and not for the Prophet’s wives only. With all the above proofs from the Qur’an and the authentic Ahadith, we can therefore conclude that indeed, Muslim women are obligated to cover their faces and hands. This is because Islam enjoins men and women to guard their modesty for their eternal success. Allah I says, which meaning of is translated as: “Successful indeed are the Believers. Those who offer their Salat (prayers) with all solemnity and full submissiveness. And those who turn away from Al-Laghw (dirty, false, evil vain talk, falsehood, and all that Allah has forbidden). And those who pay the Zakat. And those who guard their chastity (i.e. privet parts, from illegal sexual acts). Except from their wives or (the slaves) that their right hands possess, - for then, they are free from blame; But whoever seeks beyond that, then those are the transgressors; Those who are faithfully true to their Amanat ( all the duties which Allah has ordained, honesty, moral responsibility and trust) and to their covenants; And those who strictly guard their ( five compulsory congregational) Salawat (prayers) (at their fixed stated hours). These are indeed the inheritors Who shall inherit the Firdaus (Paradise). They shall dwell therein forever.” (Qur'an, 23:1-11). [/center[/size]]


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